LINUX PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTE INC.
Last revised: December 6, 2018
At The Linux Professional Institute Inc. (“LPI”), we are committed to protecting your privacy and safeguarding your personal information.
The purpose of this Privacy Statement is to inform you about the types of Personal Information LPI (as follows, “we” or “us”) collects, uses and discloses. It explains how we use and disclose that information, the choices you have regarding such use and disclosure, and how you may correct that information.
We are proud to demonstrate our commitment to your privacy, by complying with the laws and regulations under applicable privacy laws in Canada. This Privacy Statement is designed to meet the standards prescribed by the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act and the regulations thereunder (“PIPEDA”) as well as applicable provincial privacy legislation and regulations, including, and the Personal Information Protection Act (Alberta), the Personal Information Protection Act (British Columbia), and An Act respecting the protection of personal information in the private sector (Quebec).
The following topics will be covered in this Privacy Statement:
- To which companies does this Privacy Statement apply?
- What is Personal Information?
- How do we collect your Personal Information?
- Where do we store your Personal Information?
- How do we use your Personal Information?
- To whom do we provide your Personal Information?
- When and how do we obtain your consent?
- How do we ensure the privacy of your Personal Information when dealing with our partners and other third parties?
- How long will we utilize, disclose or retain your Personal Information?
- How can you review your Personal Information that we have collected, utilized or disclosed?
- How do you know that the Personal Information we have on you is accurate?
- What if the Personal Information we have on you is inaccurate?
- How fast will we respond to your written requests?
- How do we know that it is really you requesting your Personal Information?
- What safeguards have we implemented to protect your Personal Information?
1. To which companies does this Privacy Statement apply?
This Privacy Statement applies to the collection, use and disclosure of Personal Information by LPI.
2. What is Personal Information?
“Personal Information” is any information that is identifiable with you, as an individual. This information may include but is not limited to your name, company, occupation, mailing address, e-mail address, billing address, phone number, credit card information, exam history, certification status, membership status; and event registration status. Personal Information, however, does not include certain business contact information used for the purpose of communicating or facilitating communication with you, as an individual, in relation to your employment, business or profession.
3. How do we collect your Personal Information?
We will always collect your Personal Information by fair and lawful means (for example, when you register with us). We may collect Personal Information from you directly and/or from third parties, where we have obtained your consent to do so or as otherwise required or permitted by law.
4. Where do we store your Personal Information?
We will keep the Personal Information that we collect at the LPI offices, LPI-managed co-located hosting facilities; or at the offices of our third party service providers, as applicable. Your Personal Information is stored in Ontario, Canada.
5. How do we use your Personal Information?
We identify the purposes for which we use your Personal Information at the time we collect such information from you and obtain your consent, in any case, prior to such use. We generally use your Personal Information for the following purposes (the “Purposes”):
- to provide you with the services and deliverables that you may request from LPI, from time to time;
- to manage your account with LPI;
- to process your orders from LPI;
- to schedule and administer examinations;
- granting certifications and verifying against certifications granted by LPI;
- to provide you with information about conferences and events;
- to respond to questions, comments or concerns regarding LPI;
- to allow for more meaningful and useful marketing initiatives;
- to collect your Personal Information in aggregate form to develop consumer profiles, perform sales analysis and identify marketing opportunities and strategies;
- to collect opinions and comments in regard to LPI’s operations;
- to recruit for positions in LPI;
- to investigate legal claims;
- to administer LPI websites and any LPI software applications;
- such purposes for which LPI may obtain consent from time to time; and
- such other uses as may be permitted or required by applicable law.
6. To whom do we provide your Personal Information?
We identify to whom, and for what purposes, we disclose your Personal Information, at the time we collect such information from you and obtain your consent to such disclosure.
LPI Regional Partners (as follows, “Regional Partners”) are official partners of LPI that provide regional support of LPI activities and values around the globe.
LPI may disclose your information to LPI Regional Partners. LPI may provide candidate contact information to LPI Regional Partners who wish to send candidates in their region information about LPI activities and marketing communications.
We may transfer your Personal Information to third party service providers with whom we have a contractual agreement that includes appropriate privacy standards, where such third parties are assisting us with the Purposes – such as service providers that provide telephone support or data storage or processing.
In addition, we may send Personal Information outside of the country for the Purposes, including for process and storage by service providers in connection with such Purposes. However, you should note that to the extent that any Personal Information is out of the country, it is subject to the laws of the country in which it is held, and may be subject to disclosure to the governments, courts or law enforcement or regulatory agencies of such other country, pursuant to the laws of such country. For written information about our policies and practices regarding service providers outside of Canada, contact our Privacy Information Officer (see question 17 below).
As of the revision date of this Privacy Statement, LPI may share your data outside of Canada to the following jurisdictions for the purposes outlined:
- United States; for the purposes of physical certificate fulfilment and shipping, as well as accounting and bookkeeping-related matters.
- France; for the purposes of email marketing and communications.
- Internationally to our Regional Partners; for the purposes outlined in topic #5.
7. When and how do we obtain your consent?
We generally obtain your consent prior to collecting, and in any case, prior to using or disclosing your Personal Information for any purpose. You may provide your consent to us either orally, electronically or in writing. The form of consent that we seek, including whether it is express or implied, will largely depend on the sensitivity of the Personal Information and the reasonable expectations you might have in the circumstances.
8. How do we ensure the privacy of your Personal Information when dealing with our affiliates and other third parties?
9. How long will we utilize, disclose or retain your Personal Information?
LPI shall retain records for the period of their immediate or current use, unless longer retention is necessary for historical reference, research, or to comply with contractual or legal requirements. The records of the LPI shall be classified for purposes of retention as follows:
- Class 1: Permanent Retention. Records that are permanent or essential shall be retained and preserved indefinitely. Examples of permanent records include official minutes of LPI board actions, LPI policies, annual reports, customer service correspondence, as well as records of candidate identification information with their certification status and date of examination, and full record of candidate exam responses are also classified as permanent records.
- Class 2: Current Records. Current records are records that for convenience, reference, or other reasons are retained by LPI. Current records will be retained for seven years. Examples of current records include general correspondence, financial records, and records and payment regarding employee or consultant agreements.
- Class 3: No Retention Required. Documents and other materials that are not “records” need not be retained. Documents and other materials (including originals and duplicates) that are not otherwise required to be retained, are not necessary to the functioning or continuity of LPI and which have no legal significance may be destroyed when no longer needed. Examples include materials and documents generated for the convenience of the person generating them, draft documents (other than some contracts) and duplicate copies of records that are no longer needed. Specific examples include reminder messages, miscellaneous correspondence not requiring follow-up or action, e-mails that do not need to be retained under this policy as well as chronological files. With limited exceptions, no specific retention requirements are assigned to documents in this category. Instead, it is up to the originator or recipient to determine when the document’s business utility has ended.
10. How can you review your Personal Information that we have collected, utilized or disclosed?
If you make a written request to review any Personal Information about you that we have collected, utilized or disclosed, we will provide you with any such Personal Information to the extent required by law. We will make such Personal Information available to you in a form that is generally understandable, and will explain any abbreviations or codes.
11. How do you know that the Personal Information we have on you is accurate?
We will ensure that your Personal Information is kept as accurate, complete and up-to-date as possible. We will not routinely update your Personal Information, unless such a process is necessary. We expect you, from time to time, to supply us with written updates to your Personal Information, when required. We encourage you to maintain your personal information and contact information via the LPI Candidate Portal by logging into your account on new.lpi.org.
12. What if the Personal Information we have on you is inaccurate?
At any time, you can challenge the accuracy or completeness of your Personal Information in our records. If you successfully demonstrate that your Personal Information in our records is inaccurate or incomplete, we will amend the Personal Information as required. Where appropriate, we will transmit the amended information to third parties having access to your Personal Information.
13. How fast will we respond to your written requests?
We will attempt to respond to each of your written requests not later than thirty (30) days after receipt of such requests. We will advise you in writing if we cannot meet your requests within this time limit. You have the right to make a complaint to the Privacy Commissioner of Canada or your applicable provincial privacy commissioner in respect of this time limit.
We will not charge any costs for you to access your Personal Information in our records without first providing you with an estimate of the approximate costs, if any.
15. How do we know that it is really you requesting your Personal Information?
We may request that you provide sufficient identification to permit access to the existence, use or disclosure of your Personal Information. Any such identifying information shall be used only for this purpose.
16. What safeguards have we implemented to protect your Personal Information?
We have implemented physical, organizational, contractual and technological security measures to protect your Personal Information from loss or theft, unauthorized access, disclosure, copying, use or modification. The only employees, who are granted access to your Personal Information, are those with a business ‘need-to-know’ or whose duties reasonably require such information.
Attn: Kevin Glendenning [Privacy Officer]
Linux Professional Institute
41 John Street, 2nd Floor, Suite #1
Port Hope, Ontario L1A 2Z3
By e-mail: privacy -at- new.lpi.org
Per Article 27 of the GDPR, LPI is required to designate a representative within one of the Member States in the Union. LPI’s representative for compliance with Article 27 of the GDPR is:
Name: Torsten Scheck
Email: privacy-eu -at- new.lpi.org
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The LPI program will attempt to be architecture-neutral when possible. When architecture-specific knowledge is deemed important for the purposes of the program, Intel “PC” architectures will be used for reference. Other architectures may be optionally included for testing as demand warrants.
Exam Order and Awarding of Certifications
For the LPIC program, we require candidates to pass all exams from exam 101 up to the desired level of certification. Exams may be taken in any order, however, higher level certifications will not be awarded until the lower level certifications have been attained. Motivation: At the higher levels, we can only guarantee the necessary background and a complete and consistent program if the candidates pass the lower level exams.
The Linux Essentials certificate is a stand alone exam and is not part of the LPIC program.
Bounding the Certification Program
The Linux Certification Program will test technical skills and knowledge required of the Linux professional. The emphasis will be on understanding rather than memorization.
We will not test other requisites for a successful IT professional like general intelligence, social and managerial skills, knowledge of legislation, financial awareness etc.
The Linux Professional Institute will not explicitly test on knowledge of jargon or acronyms. The examinees are expected to be familiar with concepts that have a commonly used acronym for a name (e.g. TCP/IP). However, we will not require knowledge of the actual meaning of the letters.
There will be a list of preferred terms and deprecated synonyms. Acronyms which are not explicitly listed as “preferred”, should not be used. This list will also contain definitions of the terms within a certain context where this appears necessary. The list will be updated while successive tests are being developed by LPI, and the tests will be made consistent with this list.
LPI will review the contents of its test objectives and exams and revise them as deemed necessary in order to provide for new material, test validity, security, and to incorporate feedback. Test objectives and exams will be reviewed at least once in two years.
Once a person is certified by LPI and receives a certification designation (LPIC-1, LPIC-2, LPIC-3), recertification is recommended after two years from the date of the certification designation to retain a current certification status. However, to RETAIN an ACTIVE certification status, a certification holder is REQUIRED to recertify within 5 years of the certification designation. The date a candidate passed the last required exam to earn a certification designation, will mark the start of the certification’s ACTIVE status. Likewise, the certification will become INACTIVE, 5 years after the date a candidate passed the last required exam to earn the certification designation. (For example, if a candidate passed LPIC-1 102 on September 8th, 2015 then September 8th, 2015 is the certification designation date and the candidate’s LPIC-1 certification designation will become INACTIVE on September 8th, 2020.)
Recertification requires that the individual candidate passes all up-to-date exams that are only required for the highest earned certification designation. After successful recertification, the designation status will be updated to ACTIVE for a period of FIVE years.
When a higher level certification designation is earned, the status of all lower level designations are considered ACTIVE for FIVE years from the date of the higher level certification designation. However, candidates who do not recertify and allow their certification status to lapse will be required to earn their current and all lower level certification designations, should they subsequently pursue reactivating their certification status.
The addition of the designation status of ACTIVE or INACTIVE into the LPI database began on September 1, 2004. Certification designations (LPIC-1, LPIC-2, etc.) earned before that date will be subject to the recertification stipulations as outlined above. Therefore all certification designations earned before September 1, 2004 will no longer be considered ‘lifetime’ designations and instead will only have ACTIVE status from FIVE years from the date of certification designation. However, certification designations earned prior to September 1, 2003 will be considered ACTIVE certifications until September 1, 2008.
Beginning September 1st, 2009 a single exam towards the LPIC-1 or LPIC-2 certification will remain ACTIVE for a period of FIVE years until the second exam towards the certification designation is successfully completed. Since the LPIC-3 certification requires only one exam, candidates may retake that exam or any of the LPIC-3 “specialty” exams (e.g. LPI-302, LPI-303, etc.) to attain recertification status for LPIC-3. Therefore the successful completion of a single LPIC-3 “specialty” exam will recertify the candidate’s LPIC-3 level and all lower LPIC certifications levels (e.g. LPIC-1 and LPIC-2). The successful completion of a LPIC-3 level specialty exam, will not recertify other exams at the same level (e.g. LPIC-303 and LPIC-304).
The LPI Board voted on a policy regarding the delay required between re-taking exams:
Anyone who takes an LPI exam once must wait one week before re-taking.
Anyone who takes an LPI exam a second (and subsequent) time must wait 30 days before re-taking.
Anyone who passes an LPI exam may not retake that exam for at least two years.
Please note: different versions of an exam are still considered the same exam for the purposes above. For example, the 101-400 and 101-500 are both considered the same exam in the scope of this retake policy.
The disciplinary procedures of LPI are intended to assist and inform certificants and candidates for certification of LPI standards relative to professional conduct and discipline. A certificant or candidate for certification agrees to comply at all times to the standards found here.
Candidate Grievances, Complaints and Appeals
Grievances that question the examination content, passing standard or specific items will be accepted by LPI and reviewed as part of its quality control processes, but no further action will be taken on the grievance. Complaints concerning application, testing procedures or retesting procedures must be made in writing to LPI.
Grievances concerning a specific exam administration must be submitted in writing with a signature to LPI within 30 days of the exam administration. LPI staff will contact the candidate with its decision within 60 days of receipt of the grievance.
Should the candidate desire to appeal the decision, the candidate must submit a written appeal request within 15 days of receipt of LPI’s decision. Within 60 days, LPI shall schedule a hearing (likely by conference call).
During the appeal, the Board will only review whether a decision made by LPI was inappropriate if: (1) the decision was based on material errors of fact, or (2) LPI failed to follow published criteria, policies, and procedures. Only facts and conditions up to and including the time of LPI’s decision will be considered during the appeal.
LPI and the applicant or certificant may make opening statements, present documents and testimony, examine and cross-examine witnesses under oath, make closing statements, and present briefs as scheduled by the Board. Formal rules of evidence shall apply. Relevant evidence may be submitted electronically.
Disputed questions shall be determined by majority vote of the Board and shall be final and binding. The decision of the LPI Board shall be rendered in writing and transmitted to the applicant or certificant by certified mail whenever possible, within 30 days of the appeal.
Requests for Manual Re-Scoring of Exams
Although it is extremely unlikely that manual re-scoring will result in a change in examination results, candidates who receive a failing score may request a manual re-scoring of paper-and-pencil administered exams or computer administered exams. Requests should be submitted in writing and mailed to LPI with a US$50.00 fee (money order or certified check) made payable to LPI. Upon receipt of a written request and appropriate fee, the candidate’s exam will be manually re-scored. Requests for manual scoring must be received in the LPI central office no later than 30 days following receipt of the pass/fail decision. Requests received later than that will not be honored. Request for manual scoring will be processed within 30 days after receipt of request and submission of the appropriate fee.
LPI does not discriminate for the purposes of Board membership or office, application, examination, recertification or any other activity of the Board on the basis of age, gender, race, sexual preference, color, religion, marital status, national origin or disability.
Furthermore, LPI is committed to ensuring that no individual is deprived of the opportunity to take an examination solely by reason of a disability. In the United States, our testing vendor examination facilities meet ADA standards and are accessible by those in wheelchairs or with other mobility impairments. In other countries around the world, facilities are dependent on local norms and efforts will be extended to provide accommodations whenever possible.
Special accommodations also may be provided for individuals with documented disabilities. For individuals requesting special provisions for computer administered exams, the individual must state their needs to the particular testing vendor before scheduling an exam and the testing vendor will consult with LPI regarding the provision of an accommodation. For paper-and-pencil testing, the individual should apply directly to the LPI central office at least 14 days before the testing date. LPI will determine applicant eligibility for special accommodations and applicants should provide LPI at least 14 days to review the request, and if warranted, make provisions to provide an accommodation for a specific date at a testing site.
Requests for accommodations for either a computer administered or paper-and-pencil examination should include:
- documentation of the disability
- accommodations requested for the examination
- descriptions of past accommodations provided for in other educational or testing situations
- a current letter from a physician or other appropriate diagnostic authority confirming the diagnosis of the disability and a prescription for specific accommodations.
Ineligibility for certification
Irregularity in connection with the certification examination, including retaking exams outside of the boundaries of the stated retake policy.
Unauthorized possession, use, access, or distribution of certification examinations, examination questions, score reports, answer sheets, certificates, certificant or applicant files, documents or other materials.
Material misrepresentation or fraud in any statement to Linux Professional Institute, to its vendors, or to the public, including but not limited to statements made to assist the applicant, certificant, or another apply for, obtain, or retain certification.
LPI retains a Board that has final and complete authority to deny the privilege of examination and to revoke inappropriately gained certifications. This process may happen at any time in the certification process, including revocation after a candidate has received certification from LPI. The Board of LPI retains all rights and final authority on decisions regarding inappropriate gain and use of the exams and certifications. This process may also include external, formal litigation if criminal intent is discovered.
Whenever LPI receives allegations concerning the potential violation of a discipline standard, such allegations will be transmitted to the board. If the board determines that no good cause exists to question compliance or eligibility with the standards, no adverse action shall be taken. If the board determines by a majority vote that good cause does exist, it shall direct a transmittal to the applicant or certificant, preferably by certified mail, stating the alleged violation and disciplinary standard allegedly violated. The transmittal shall also include a recitation of right and procedures.
The applicant or certificant shall have the right to an oral hearing if he or she disputes the allegations. The individual will be notified that they must bear their own expenses in connection with any such hearing. Individuals must notify the board within 15 days of receipt of the transmittal if they wish to dispute the allegations, request an oral hearing, or comment regarding appropriate sanctions. Sanctions may be imposed by the board if the allegations are determined to be true or if the applicant or certificant fails to submit a timely response. The applicant or certificant will be deemed to consent to the imposition of sanctions by the board if he or she does not dispute the allegations.
If an applicant or certificant disputes the allegations or requests a hearing, LPI shall schedule a hearing (likely by conference call). LPI and the applicant or certificant may make opening statements, present documents and testimony, examine and cross-examine witnesses under oath, make closing statements, and present briefs as scheduled by the board. Formal rules of evidence shall apply. Relevant evidence may be submitted electronically. Disputed questions shall be determined by majority vote of the board.
Sanctions for violating LPI certification standards may include one or more of the following:
- Denial or suspension of eligibility
- Conditions relating to the above
The decision of the LPI Board shall be rendered in writing. The decision shall contain factual findings, conclusions of law, and any sanctions applied. It shall be transmitted to the applicant or certificant by certified mail whenever possible.